The 4th/5th states of matter!(:

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Besides the three states of matter that is solid,liquid and gas,there is also the fourth and fifth states of matter.(Plasma and Bose-Einstein)

The 4th states of matter.(Plasma)

Plasma is an ionized gas, the fourth state of matter,the presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases and is considered to be a distinct state of matter. Like gas,plasma does not have a definite shape or definite volume.Plasma is also a high-energy states of matter.

How to achieve them?

Common artificial plasma:

Most artificial plasmas are generated by the application of electric and/or magnetic field.

Examples of industrials/commerical plasma:

Low-pressure discharges:

Glow discharges plasmas: non-thermal plasmas generated by the application of DC or low frequency RF electric field to the gap between two metal electrodes. Probably the most common plasma; this is the type of plasma generated within fluroscent light tubes.

Watch this video about plasma,it’s cool.

The 5th states of matter.(Bose-Einstein condensate)

A Bose-Einstein condensate is a rare state of matter in which a large percentage of bosons collapse into their lowest quantum state, allowing quantum effects to be observed on a macroscopic scale. The bosons collapse into this state in circumstances of extremely low temperature, near the value of absolute zero.The Bose-Einstein condensate is neither gas nor liquid, but a third fluid state where all the atoms behave in the same way.

How to achieve them?

A Bose-Einstein condensate, the fifth state of matter, is formed at low temperatures when a significant number of the elementary particles classified as bosons collapse into the same quantum state.

Watch this video about about Bose-Einstein,it’s interesting.

–Michelle

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